Monday, July 7, 2014

Cramming for my Humanities Final

Greek Art and Architecture

3rd century bc greece and surrounding islands
Architecture leave clues to the people
Predecessors coastal Aegean
Cycladic art cycladic circle of islands in the Aegean sea
Minoan art after King Minos Crete
Helladic art of the mainland 

Cycladic Islands
only left tombs containing stone islands angular abstraction for body proportions

Minoan art 3,000 bc pottery fragments
1900-1200 height of civilization cannot decifer writing of the era
pleasure seeking, more concerned with art than conflict
frescos king minos palace (35,000 sq ft) at knossos floating images
all buildings face a courtyard where the bull leaping may have taken place
three stories up, two below in a complex maze
bull leaping popular, white paint and bracelets for women very egyptian
red skin for males slim waists olive shaped eyes, large stylized bull horns
Arthur Evans began excavation in the early 1900s at knossos, columns of wood with flaring capitol

Mycenaean Greece refers to the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece (ca. 1600–1100 BC). It takes its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in Argolis, Peloponnese, southern Greece.
Populated by minoans who migrated from the northern part of crete
dogs painted in full extension stride as were the bulls at knossos, bulls also important in mycenaean art
built fortress like structures on hills for protection, Mycene is the first greek acropolis
Megaron is the main rectangular room, which later influenced the cella of the greek temple
Lion’s gate is the only relief sculpture of monumental size from this era, their feet on a column
Column has religious significance if the lions are protecting it
Gold masks in grave circles and large beehive tombs
Treasury of Atreus is a tomb built after they had contact with Egypt
the Egyptians were under siege by Hyksos who seized the nile delta
Mycenean sailing ships helped Egyptians, Mycenean warriors were paid by Egyptians in gold
Made wealthy by the Egyptians, the Myceneans came to rule over the Minoans by 1400 bc
1100 bc Dorians from the north invaded and lead to 300 years of dormancy

Oldest greek art is geometric 800 bc, applied mainly to pottery, all figures stick like in a geometric framework
It was short lived, Black lines painted on a terracotta background
Many ceramic and bronze statuettes emphasize the geometric style
Eastern influences lead to the archaic style 700-480 bc, realistic black profiles of people with minimal detail
Then the background became black, which allowed painters to include drapery folds and facial expressions
Larger than life human forms in stone, greek youth Kouros produced in great quantities
These were free standing, rather than the Egyptian high relief, which was still connected to the stone
Archaic statues all look the same--god like physical perfection, often with a smile
they were votive offerings for the temple they graced
Greek art became an opportunity to honor the gods. Temples were first built during the archaic period
Monumentality and eternity of stone temples inspired by the egyptians
Temple rectangular shape inspired by Mycenean Megaron
Steps, columns, Entablature: superstructure of moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns
Dorian frieze within the entablature: triglyphs (square spaces), metopes (relief sculpture)
Doric columns have flaring capitols similar to minoan, but doric columns taper upward and are fluted
Greek column is a series of stacked cylinderical drums held in place by metal dowel, then flutes carved
The triangular top is the pediment, with scultures tall a the middle and short on the ends to fit the triangle
Pediment from temple to Zeus has been restored at olympia
east moment before famous chariot race, west apollo center centaurs abducting women more emotion

Attica ionian greeks from asia minor in the east
capitol has double scroll at top, ionic column is less tapered, lighter and more graceful and feminine
ionian freize replaces the entablature of the mainland and tells a continuous story without the triglyphs
Ionian style popular on the mainland after the Athenians defeated the persians in 5th century bc

Classical Greek art 450 bc Athens at height of power, protected by warrior goddess Athena
Parthenon dedicated to Athena applies Ionian grace to Doric might
Columns are less massive than the Doric columns, tilted inward to prevent square block look
Sculptures were painted bright colors
The Erechtheion on the north side of the acropolis. Very feminine because of its completely Ionic style
Three stowas or porches connected to the main structure (the cella), 
Porch of the maidens columns are maidens
Contraposto relaxed stance of classical greece statue, smile not needed, more serious pensive
Art reflects intellecutual world of the greeks. Statue of Posidon bold, physical, omniscient
Charioteer is confident, nobel
Survived the Peloponesian war, rise of Alexander, and roman empire
Romans viewed greeks as masters of science, philo, fine arts
Darryl Patrick art historian Sam Houston State University

The stylobate is the platform on which the columns stand. As in many other classical Greek temples,[38] it has a slight parabolic upward curvature intended to shed rainwater and reinforce the building against earthquakes. The columns might therefore be supposed to lean outwards, but they actually lean slightly inwards so that if they carried on, they would meet almost exactly a mile above the centre of the Parthenon; since they are all the same height, the curvature of the outer stylobate edge is transmitted to the architrave and roof above: "All follow the rule of being built to delicate curves," Gorham Stevens observed when pointing out that, in addition, the west front was built at a slightly higher level than that of the east front.[39] It is not universally agreed what the intended effect of these "optical refinements" was; they may serve as a sort of "reverse optical illusion".[40] As the Greeks may have been aware, two parallel lines appear to bow, or curve outward, when intersected by converging lines. In this case, the ceiling and floor of the temple may seem to bow in the presence of the surrounding angles of the building. Striving for perfection, the designers may have added these curves, compensating for the illusion by creating their own curves, thus negating this effect and allowing the temple to be seen as they intended. It is also suggested that it was to enliven what might have appeared an inert mass in the case of a building without curves, but the comparison ought to be with the Parthenon's more obviously curved predecessors than with a notional rectilinear temple.

Film Terminology Sheets

Greek Art and Architecture
Cycladic Art - 
Minoan Art (Crete)
Bull leaping
Females: white paint and bracelets
Males: red skin tones, long wavy hair
Helladic Art
Mycenaean Architecture: First Acropolis
Lion Gates
Gold Masks
Bee-hive tombs
Dorians (1100 BCE)
Geometric 800 BCE
Sticklike figures. Black lines on a terra cotta background
Archaic Vase Painting (700-480 BCE)
Black backgrounds /red figures
Kouros: Greek Youth Sculptures/Free standing
Why do the sculptures all look the same?
Stone Temples

Doric Friezes with Triglyphs   Metopes
Doric Column
Ionic Column
Ionian Frieze
Classical Greek
Parthenon: Dedicated to Athena
Controposto: Relaxed form of the Classical Greek sculpture
The Real Olympics
Temple of Zeus
God in whose honor the Olympics were conducted:
Date of First Games
Race in Armor

Long Jump
Jumping Weights
Pankration - a combat sport introduced into the Greek Olympic Games in 648 BC and founded as a blend of boxing and wrestling but with scarcely any rules. The only things not acceptable were biting and gouging of the opponent's eyes.
Chariot Race
Baron Pierre de Courbetin
Torch Relay
Olympic Rings
Preparation for Athletics: Washing, Oiling, Scenting, Dusting
Honor and Shame Society
Sharp Thongs
Callipateira of Rhodes
Amateur Status
Pankration Rules
Rogue’s Gallery
Nero’s 10 Horse Chariot
Ancient and Modern Olympics
Similarities Differences

The Spartans
300 Spartans
Spartan Frugality and Warriors
Compulsory Homosexuality
Agamemnon - king who lead the Greeks against Troy in the Trojan War
Mycenae - ancient city is southern Greece; center of the Mycenaean civilization during the late Bronze Age
Menelaus and Helen of Troy/Sparta
City States
2 Kings/2 Houses
Heracles - Hercules: (classical mythology) a hero noted for his strength; performed 12 immense labors to gain immortality
Slave Nation
Round Shield
Phalanx - body of troops or police officers, standing or moving in close formation.
Gorgon - Each of three sisters, Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa, with snakes for hair, who had the power to turn anyone who looked at them to stone.
Lycurgus - 9th century bc , Spartan lawgiver. He is traditionally regarded as the founder of the Spartan constitution, military institutions, and educational system
Infanticide/City Elder Decision
Rearing (Age of 7)

Secret Service Brigade - a corps dubbed rather sinisterly the Krypteia or Secret Service Brigade'. ... exercise: to kill, after dark, any of the Spartans' enslaved Greek population
Stealing the Cheese - The main purpose of Agoge was to discipline the youth. Once a year, they tested them for their endurance in front of the altar of Orthia Artemis, in the game of stealing cheeses whipping them severely. The ones who withstood this event, in which not a few died, without moans and cries, they crowned with wreathes.
Education: Music/Dancing
Festival of Naked Youth (Agon) - In general, the term refers to a struggle or contest. In its broader sense of a struggle or contest, agon referred to a contest in athletics, chariot or horse racing, music or literature at a public festival

The Equals
Black Soup
Social Contract
“Leonidas” and Leonidas
Oracle at Delphi
A Beautiful Death
Battle of Salomis
Athenian Trireme
The Wall of Athens
Barbarian Slaves/Greek Freemen
Spartan Women
Athenian Women

Raising of young women in Sparta
Thigh Flashers
The Ambrosial Night
Separate Lives for men and women
Institutionalized Pederasty
Marriage by Capture
Female Freedom
Women in Politics
“With your shield or on it.”
Hellate Revolution
The Peloponnesian War
Island of Pelos
Island of Sphacteria
Delphic Pythia

Attack on the Hermes
Kinadon’s Conspiracy
Phalanxes 50 men deep
Mycenaen Walls
The liberation of the Mycenaens
Sparta’s Fatal Flaw
The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization

City States:
Battle of Marathon:
Themistocles was part of a new breed of Athenian politicians who was able to rise to a position of leadership even though he was not part of the landed aristocracy and did not have a traditional upbringing. He knew little, for instance, of music and poetry. His lowly beginnings apparently put him on the defensive when confronted by his well-educated peers:

"I never learned how to tune a harp, or play upon a lute; but I know how to raise a small and inconsiderable city to glory and greatness." As quoted by Plutarch

Clearly Themistocles was not shy, nor did he feel inadequate to the task he set for himself. Rather, he was a bold, visionary leader who led with the Athenians with confidence. 
Delphi: city where the oracle lived
The Parthenon Frieze:
Theatre of Dionysos: